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什么原因造成柴油发动机动力不足?
编辑:广东瓦格耐电力科技有限公司   发布时间:2018-02-06

 

柴油发动机长时间运行后,由于零件磨损或操作、调整不当,维修保养不及时等原因,往往会出现动力不足的问题。其主要原因有两方面:一是由于燃烧室密封不良、供油量不足、喷油器雾化不良、供气量不足、供油正时调整不当等原因,造成的燃油不完全燃烧,导致柴油机动力不足;二是由于机件磨损过大、润滑不良、冷却不佳、安装不当等原因,造成的柴油机本身摩擦损失的功率过大,使输出功率减少,导致柴油机动力不足。因此,在分析排除柴油机动力不足故障时,星光提醒您应抓住燃烧好坏和摩擦损失大小这两个关键问题,再结合操作使用者对柴油机各零部件的磨损情况和技术状态的了解和掌握,从而找出造成柴油机动力不足可能性最大的几个原因,然后进行检查和排除。

 

1. 供油不足

供油不足是发动机比较常见的故障之一。有两种情况易造成发动机供油不足:

第一种情况是油路半堵导致供油阻力增大,使机器供油不畅。出现这种情况时,机器在小负载供电表现正常,但在大负载供电时,由于供油不畅而所需供油量增大,发动机会出现明显的故障现象:转速下降,声音变得“吃力”。此时需对供油管路及柴油滤清器进行检查,清除堵塞物或更换滤清器即可。

 

第二种情况是低压油路封闭不严导致空气进入,产生气阻。这种故障现象也比较明显:除机器动力不足外,在油管接头处可听到明显的“嗞嗞”声,加大油门,这种声音也随之增大。发现漏气后,根据情况重新拧紧接头螺丝或更换密封垫即可。

      2. 进、排气系统故障

     当进气系统出现堵塞时,会导致柴油发动机进气不足,功率下降,声音沉闷,同时排气冒黑烟。进气系统最常见的故障是空气滤清器堵塞。这种故障现象比较明显,容易判断,只要仔细清洗空气滤清器即可解决。对于增压柴油发动机来说,除了空气滤清器堵塞,进、排气系统有漏气也会导致机器动力不足。因为增压柴油机是靠排气压力带动涡轮旋转,向进气管道输送压缩空气,从而提高发动机功率。因此增压柴油机的进、排气系统必须完全密封,如果排气系统有漏气现象,会使排气压力减小,增压器转速下降,发动机的进气压力也减小,最终使动力下降,表现为功率不足。如果进气系统有漏气,同样会因进气不足而造成机器功率下降。进、排气系统漏气的检查,可用棉絮、细布条等靠近管路接头处,如果有明显被吹动或吸进接缝的现象,则说明有漏气,需在管路接头处加装垫片或拧紧螺丝。

 

3.活塞组故障

     活塞组出现的故障主要是活塞组件磨损和拉伤。当活塞、活塞环和缸套磨损时,会造成气缸压缩不良,发动机动力不足。现象是工作无力、排气冒蓝烟,耗机油。磨损严重时,还伴有曲轴箱窜气和发动机异响。

引起活塞组磨损严重和拉伤的原因:

一是发动机起动后没有充分预热,在冷机状态突然加速或加负载。

二是发动机温度过高,造成活塞组机件过度膨胀以及硬度和强度下降,使机件严重磨损或拉伤。出现这种故障后,必须对机器进行大修,更换活塞和缸套,严禁继续使用机器,否则易发生严重事故。为了避免发动机出现严重磨损和拉伤,平时应按照规程操作机器,保证机器工作在良好状态。

最重要的是注意以下三点:

1. 起动后要充分预热后再提速,避免机器冷拉伤;

2. 要使机油压力保持在规定范围,不可过大或过小;

3. 停机前需怠速运转数分钟,使机温下降后再停机,不可在高速运行中突然停机。

      4. 增压器故障

      增压器是增压发动机的重要部件,它必须保持良好的工作状态,尤其是转子的轴向与径向间隙必须保持在规定的数值范围内。如果增压器出现故障,会造成转速下降、进气压力降低,最终导致发动机动力不足。

增压器出现故障的主要表现如下:

一是“吃油”。

二是有刮擦声。引起这种现象的主要原因是转子轴与轴承磨损严重和密封环损伤,从而造成耗机油和有响声。当转子轴与轴承磨损严重,影响机器正常工作时,必须更换部件。

避免增压器意外磨损的方法,是严格按照操作规程使用设备,最重要的是注意两点

一是发动机刚起动后,必须怠速运转3至5分钟,待机油已在润滑系统内形成循环,机油压力上升至正常值以后再提速、加负载;

二是停机前要怠速运转约3分钟,待发动机与增压器转速下降后再停机。严禁猛加油门后突然熄火,因为这样操作会使机油泵停止工作而增压器仍在高速旋转,进而使增压器由于缺少机油形成干磨擦,加剧磨损和拉伤,严重时甚至使涡轮损坏、转子轴折断。

 

  5. 发动机喷油时间不准

     不同型号的柴油发动机对喷油时间有不同的要求,如4135型柴油机喷油时间为上止点前28°至31°。喷油时间不当会使发动机功率显著下降,并且对机件损害较大。喷油过早,发动机起动困难、冒黑烟,工作中震动加大,声音变得“暴躁”,有敲缸声,机温升高,排气颜色较正常时要浓;喷油过晚,发动机起动困难并冒灰色或白色烟,工作中声音显得沉闷,机器转动无力,排气冒灰黑色烟,严重时排气管放炮,排气管温度显著升高。喷油时间不当多是由于机器长时间震动,使传动轴与高压油泵凸轮轴结合部松动,从而形成一定的角度差造成的,发现喷油时间不当时,只要按规定数据重新调整至规定值,并拧紧螺丝即可。

 

 6. 三大偶件磨损

     柱塞偶件出油阀偶件针阀偶件是柴油机的三大偶件,它们是柴油发动机的关键部件,任何一个出现故障都会影响动力输出。当柱塞偶件出现磨损时,会使高压建立不迅速、油压过低、供油量不足;出油阀偶件磨损时,会造成断油不干脆,有二次喷油或滴油现象,机器转速不稳,震动加剧,排气冒黑烟;针阀偶件磨损时,会产生滴油现象,使喷油嘴结胶,严重影响喷油质量,造成柴油雾化不良,排气冒黑烟。三大偶件损坏的最终结果,都是影响发动机的功率输出,使机器表现为动力不足。偶件损坏后不能修理,只能整体更换。损坏的原因,除了正常使用造成的磨损,还与燃油的质量,以及使用者的操作方法有紧密关系。因此,除要使用质量合格的燃油外,还要按规程正确地操作使用设备。如尽量避免猛加速;长期停放再启用时,要仔细检查机器的状态,尤其要检查柱塞的灵活程度;定期检查喷油器的喷油压力并清除积炭等。

 

 

What causes diesel engine power shortage?

 

Diesel engine after a long period of operation, due to parts wear or operation, improper adjustment, maintenance and other reasons are not timely, often there will be insufficient power problems. The main reasons are two aspects: First, due to bad combustion chamber, lack of fuel supply, fuel injector bad, lack of gas supply, oil timing adjustment and other reasons, resulting in incomplete combustion of fuel, resulting in diesel Lack of power; the second is due to mechanical wear is too large, poor lubrication, poor cooling, improper installation and other reasons, resulting in the friction of the diesel engine itself is too large, so that the output power reduction, resulting in diesel engine power shortage. Therefore, in the analysis of the exclusion of diesel engine power failure, the Star remind you to seize the burning and the quality of the friction loss of the two key issues, combined with the operation of the user parts of the diesel wear and technical status of the understanding and master , To find out the cause of diesel engine power shortage of the most likely reasons, and then check and exclude.

 

   1. Insufficient oil supply

   Insufficient fuel supply is one of the more common faults in the engine. There are two cases easily lead to lack of engine oil supply:

   The first case is the oil half of the lead caused by increased resistance to oil supply, so that poor oil supply machine. In this case, the machine in the small load power supply is normal, but in the heavy load power supply, due to poor fuel supply and the required increase in fuel supply, the engine will be a clear phenomenon: the speed down, the sound becomes " Harder ". At this point the need for fuel lines and diesel filters to check, remove the plug or replace the filter can be.

   The second case is the lack of low-pressure oil pipeline closed air, resulting in air resistance. This fault phenomenon is also more obvious: In addition to the lack of power, the tubing joints can hear the obvious "zi zi" sound, increase the throttle, this sound also increases. After the leak is found, re-tighten the joint screw or replace the gasket as the case may be.

      2. In and out of the exhaust system

     When the air intake system is blocked, it will lead to lack of diesel engine intake, power down, the sound boring, while exhaust smoke. The most common failure of the intake system is the air filter clogging. This fault phenomenon is more obvious, easy to judge, as long as careful cleaning air filter can be resolved. For the supercharged diesel engine, in addition to the air filter plug, into the exhaust system leak will lead to lack of machine power. Because the supercharged diesel engine is driven by the exhaust pressure turbine rotation, to the intake pipeline to transport compressed air, thereby increasing the engine power. Therefore, the intake and exhaust system of the supercharged diesel engine must be completely sealed. If the exhaust system is leaky, the exhaust pressure will be reduced, the turbocharger speed will decrease, the engine inlet pressure will be reduced, and the power will be reduced , Performance for lack of power. If the air intake system leaks, the same will be due to lack of intake caused by the machine power down. Intake and exhaust system leak check, available cotton, fine cloth and other close to the pipe joints, if there is a clear blow or suction into the seam phenomenon, then there is a leak, the need to install the pipe joints Gasket or tighten the screws.

   3. Piston group failure

     Piston group failure is mainly piston components wear and tear. When the piston, piston ring and cylinder wear, will cause poor cylinder compression, the engine power shortage. Phenomenon is working weak, exhausted blue smoke, consumption of oil. Serious wear and tear, but also accompanied by crankcase fan and engine abnormal sound.

Causes of severe wear and strain in the piston group:

First, the engine is not fully warmed up after the start, in the cold state suddenly accelerated or load.

   Second, the engine temperature is too high, resulting in excessive expansion of the piston group parts and hardness and strength decreased, so that serious mechanical wear or tear. After such a failure, the machine must be overhauled, replace the piston and cylinder, is strictly prohibited to continue to use the machine, or prone to serious accidents. In order to avoid serious wear and tear of the engine, usually in accordance with the procedures to operate the machine to ensure that the machine work in good condition.

The most important thing is to note the following three points:

1. After the start to fully warm and then speed, to avoid cold cold machine;

2. To keep the oil pressure in the specified range, not too large or too small;

3. Shut down before running idle for several minutes, so that the machine temperature drops and then stop, not in the high-speed operation suddenly shut down.

       4. Supercharger failure

   The supercharger is an important part of the supercharged engine, it must maintain a good working condition, especially the axial and radial clearance of the rotor must be kept within the specified range. If the supercharger failure, will cause the speed down, lower intake pressure, and ultimately lead to lack of engine power.

The main performance of the supercharger failure is as follows:

First, "eat oil".

   Second, there is scratched sound. The main cause of this phenomenon is the rotor shaft and bearing wear serious and seal ring damage, resulting in consumption of oil and sound. When the rotor shaft and bearing wear serious, affecting the normal work of the machine, you must replace the parts.

To avoid the supercharger accidental wear method is strictly in accordance with the operating procedures to use the equipment, the most important thing is to pay attention to two points:

   First, the engine just started, you must idle for 3 to 5 minutes, the oil has been formed in the lubrication system circulation, oil pressure rose to normal after the speed, plus load;

   Second, before the shutdown to idle about 3 minutes, until the engine and supercharger speed down after the shutdown. It is strictly prohibited after the sudden throttle, because this operation will make the oil pump to stop working and the supercharger is still high-speed rotation, so that the lack of oil turbines due to the formation of dry friction, aggravate wear and tear, serious damage to the turbine even , The rotor shaft is broken.

   5. Engine injection time are not allowed

     Different types of diesel engines have different requirements for fuel injection time, such as 4135 diesel fuel injection time for the top deadline 28 ° to 31 °. Improper fuel injection time will significantly reduce the engine power, and damage to the larger parts. Fuel injection is too early, the engine starts difficult, black smoke, work vibration increased, the sound becomes "irritable", a knock sound, machine temperature rise, the exhaust color is thicker than normal; The engine starts difficult and gray or white smoke, the work sounds boring, the machine turned weak, exhaust smoke black smoke, serious exhaust pipe blasting, exhaust pipe temperature increased significantly. Improper injection time is due to the machine for a long time vibration, so that the drive shaft and high-pressure pump camshaft joint loose, resulting in a certain angle caused by poor and found that fuel injection time is not, as long as the required data to re-adjust to the specified value, And tighten the screws.

   6. Three pieces of wear and tear

     The plunger, the oil valve and the needle valve are the three main parts of the diesel engine. They are the key components of the diesel engine. Any failure will affect the power output. When the plunger even wear, will make the high pressure is not established quickly, the oil pressure is too low, the oil supply is insufficient; out of the valve even wear, will cause the oil is not crisp, there are secondary fuel injection or drip phenomenon , The machine speed instability, vibration intensified, exhaust black smoke; needle valve wear, will produce drip phenomenon, so that the nozzle nozzle, a serious impact on the fuel injection quality, resulting in diesel fog bad, exhaust Black smoke. Three final damage to the final result, are the impact of the engine power output, the machine performance for the lack of power. Even after the damage can not repair, only the overall replacement. The cause of the damage, in addition to the normal use of the wear and tear, but also with the quality of the fuel, as well as the user's methods of operation are closely related. Therefore, in addition to the use of qualified quality fuel, but also according to the correct operation of the use of equipment. Such as try to avoid fierce acceleration; long-term parking and then re-enable, to carefully check the state of the machine, in particular, to check the flexibility of the plunger; regularly check the injector fuel injection pressure and remove coke and so on.

 

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