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柴油发电机组类型和功能
编辑:广东瓦格耐电力科技有限公司   发布时间:2018-02-06

柴油发电机组
  
  在通信系统中,交换机及其它直流负载、交流负载是靠市电供给电源的。(直流负载依靠市电整流后提供)。一旦市电发生中断,交流负载同步断电,立即停止工作;蓄电池组提供直流负载工作的时间是有限的,随着蓄电池容量的逐渐下降,直流负载停止工作的情况也很快就会出现。所以,在市电停电时,发电和及时开启供电是非常重要的。
  
  概述
  柴油发电机组属自备电站交流供电设备的一种类型,是一种中小型独立的发电设备。由于它具有机动灵活、投资较少、随时可以启动等特点,广泛应用于通信、采矿、筑路、林区、农田排灌、野外施工和国防工程等各部门。
  
  柴油发电机组的组成


  柴油发电机组由两部分组成:柴油机、发电机。用柴油机作为动力,驱动三相交流发电机提供电能,柴油机与发电机通过联接器牢固在连接在一起,这样,柴油机以1500/分钟(发电机为两对磁极时)拖动发电机同步运转,发电机发出330V/220V50Hz的交流电,通过电力电缆,送至发电机配电屏,通过电力电缆送到市电、油机转换屏,由此屏送到交流配电屏,分配到各负载。
  
  机组的类型和功能
  
  油机发电机组类型很多,按其结构形式,控制方式和保护功能等不同,可分为下述几种类型。
  
  1、基本型机组
  这类机组最为常见,由柴油机、封闭式水箱、油箱、消声器、同步交流发电机、励磁电压调节装置、控制箱(屏)、联轴器和底盘等组成。机组具有电压和转速自动调节功能。通常能作为主电源或备用电源。
  
  2、自启动机组
  该机组是在基本型机组基础上增加自动控制系统。它具有自动化的功能。当市电突然停电时,机组能自动启动、自动切换开关、自动运行、自动送电和自动停机等功能;当机油压力过低、机油温度或冷却水温过高时,能自动发出声光告警信号;当机组超速时,能自动紧急停机进行保护。
  
  3、微机控制自动化机组
  该机组由性能完善的柴油机、三相无刷同步发电机、燃油自动补给装置、机油自动补给装置、冷却水自动补给装置及自动控制屏组成。自动控制屏采用可编程自动控制器PLC控制。它除了具有自启动、自切换、自运行、自投入和自停机等功能外,并配有各种故障报警和自动保护装置,此外,它通过RS232通信接口,与主计算机联接,进行集中监控,实现遥控、遥信和遥测,做到无人值守。
  
  四、机组的结构简介
  
  现代柴油机发电机组由柴油机、三相交流无刷同步发电机、控制箱(屏)、散热水箱、联轴器、燃油箱、消声器及公共底座等组件组成刚性整体。除功率较大的机组的控制屏、燃油箱单独装设计,其他的主要部件均装置在型钢焊接而成的公共底座上,便于移动和安装。
  
  柴油机的飞轮壳与发电机前端盖的轴向采用凸肩定位直接连接构成一体,并采用圆柱型的弹性联轴器由飞轮直接驱动发电机旋转。这种联接方式由螺钉固定在一起,使两者联接成一刚体,保证了柴油机的曲轴与发电机转子的同心度在规定允许范围内。
  
  为了减小机组的振动,在柴油机、发电机、水箱和电气控制箱等主要组件与公共底架的连接处,通常均装有减振器或橡皮减振垫。

 

 

Diesel Generating Set Types and Functions

Diesel generating units

In the communication system, switches and other DC load, AC load is powered by the mains power supply. (DC load depends on the mains provided after rectification). Once the mains interruption, AC load synchronous power, immediately stop working; battery pack to provide DC load work time is limited, with the battery capacity of the gradual decline in the DC load to stop the work will soon appear. Therefore, in the city power outage, power generation and timely power supply is very important. Overview Diesel generators are self-owned power station AC power supply equipment of a type, is a small and medium-sized independent power generation equipment. Because it has a flexible, less investment, can be activated at any time and other characteristics, widely used in communications, mining, road construction, forest, farmland irrigation and drainage, field construction and national defense engineering and other departments.

 

Composition of diesel generator set

Diesel generator set consists of two parts: diesel engine, generator. With the diesel engine as the driving force to drive the three-phase alternator to provide power, the diesel engine and the generator through the connector firmly connected together, so that the diesel engine to 1500 r / min (when the generator is two pairs of poles) drag the generator synchronous operation , The generator sends 330V / 220V, 50Hz AC, through the power cable, sent to the generator distribution screen, through the power cable to the electricity, oil machine conversion screen, which screen to the AC distribution screen, assigned to the load.

 

Types and functions of the unit

There are many types of generator sets, which can be classified into the following types according to their structure, control mode and protection function.

1, the basic unit This type of unit is the most common, by the diesel engine, closed water tank, fuel tank, muffler, synchronous alternator, excitation voltage regulator, control box (screen), coupling and chassis and other components. Unit with voltage and speed automatic adjustment function. Usually as a main power supply or standby power supply.

2, self-starting unit The unit is based on the basic unit to increase the automatic control system. It has the function of automation. When the power is too low, the oil temperature or cooling water temperature is too high, can automatically issue sound and light alarm signal ; When the unit speeding, can automatically stop for emergency protection.

3, the computer control automation unit The unit consists of the performance of the diesel engine, three-phase brushless synchronous generator, automatic fuel supply device, automatic oil supply device, automatic cooling water supply device and automatic control panel composition. Automatic control screen using programmable automatic controller PLC control. In addition to its self-starting, self-switching, self-running, since the input and self-shutdown and other functions, and with a variety of fault alarm and automatic protection device, in addition, it RS232 communication interface, and the host computer connection, To achieve remote control, remote and telemetry, so unattended. 4, the structure of the unit Introduction Modern diesel engine generator by the diesel engine, three-phase AC brushless synchronous generator, control box (screen), cooling water tank, coupling, fuel tank, muffler and common base components such as rigid overall. In addition to the power of the larger control panel, fuel tank installed separately, the other main components are installed in the steel welded from the common base, easy to move and install.

The flywheel shell of the diesel engine and the front end of the generator are integrally connected with the shoulder, and the generator is rotated directly by the flywheel using a cylindrical elastic coupling. This connection is fixed by the screws together, so that the two together into a rigid body, to ensure that the diesel engine crankshaft and generator rotor concentricity within the allowable range. In order to reduce the vibration of the unit, in the diesel engine, generators, water tanks and electrical control box and other major components and the connection of the common chassis, usually equipped with shock absorbers or rubber dampers.

 

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